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The limma (limma-voom) tool is for the analysis of gene expression of microarray and RNA-seq data. The limma algorithm uses a generalized linear model (GLM), log-normal distribution, trimmed mean of M-values, t- and F-tests.


Sequencing; RNA-Seq


  • Operation: RNA-Seq analysis; Differential gene expression analysis
  • Software interface: Command-line user interface; Library
  • Language: R
  • Operating system: Linux; Mac OS X; Microsoft Windows
  • License: GNU General Public License v>=2
  • Cost: Free
  • Version name: 3.52.2
  • Maturity: Mature
  • Credit: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Victorian State Government Operational Infrastructure Support and Australian Government NHMRC IRIISS.
  • Contact: Gordon Smyth smyth _at_
  • Collection: Bioconductor


Ritchie ME, Phipson B, Wu D, Hu Y, Law CW, Shi W, Smyth GK "limma powers differential expression analyses for RNA-sequencing and microarray studies." Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Apr 20;43(7):e47. 20.
PMID: 25605792
PMCID: PMC4402510

Law CW, Chen Y, Shi W, Smyth GK "voom: Precision weights unlock linear model analysis tools for RNA-seq read counts." Genome Biol. 2014 Feb 3;15(2):R29.
PMID: 24485249
PMCID: PMC4053721

Huber W, Carey VJ, Gentleman R, Anders S, Carlson M, Carvalho BS, Bravo HC, Davis S, Gatto L, Girke T, Gottardo R, Hahne F, Hansen KD, Irizarry RA, Lawrence M, Love MI, MacDonald J1, Obenchain V, Oleś AK, Pagès H, Reyes A, Shannon P, Smyth GK, Tenenbaum D, Waldron L, Morgan M "Orchestrating high-throughput genomic analysis with Bioconductor." Nat Methods. 2015 Feb;12(2):115-21.
PMID: 25633503
PMCID: PMC4509590

Gentleman RC, Carey VJ, Bates DM, Bolstad B, Dettling M, Dudoit S, Ellis B, Gautier L, Ge Y, Gentry J, Hornik K, Hothorn T, Huber W, Iacus S, Irizarry R, Leisch F, Li C, Maechler M, Rossini AJ, Sawitzki G, Smith C, Smyth G, Tierney L, Yang JY, Zhang J. "Bioconductor: open software development for computational biology and bioinformatics." Genome Biol. 2004;5(10):R80. Epub 2004 Sep 15.
PMID: 15461798
PMCID: PMC545600

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